Music, art concerned with combining vocal or instrumental sounds for beauty of form or emotional expression. Usually according to cultural standards of rhythm, melody, and, in most Western music, harmony. The simple folk song and the complex electronic composition belong to the same activity, music. The conceptual and auditory. These factors have been present in the music of all styles and in all periods of history, throughout the world.


Now the nature of man consists in this, that his will strives, is satisfied and strives anew, and so on forever. Indeed, his happiness and well-being consist simply in the quick transition from a wish to satisfaction, and from satisfaction to a new wish.

For the absence of satisfaction is suffering, the empty longing for a new wish, languor, ennui. And corresponding to this. The nature of melody is a constant digression and deviation from the keynote in a thousand ways. Not only to the harmonious intervals to the third and dominant but to very tone. To the dissonant sevenths and to the superfluous degrees. Yet there always follows a constant return to the keynote. In all these deviations melody expresses the multifarious efforts of will. But always its satisfaction also by the final return to a harmonious interval, and still more, to the keynote.

The composition of melody, the disclosure in it of all the deepest secrets of human willing and feeling is the work of genius, whose action, which is more apparent here than anywhere else, lies far from all reflection and conscious intention, and may be called an inspiration. The conception is here, as everywhere in art, unfruitful.

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The composer reveals the inner nature of the world and expresses the deepest wisdom in a language which his reason does not understand, as a person under the influence of Mesmerism tells things of which he has no conception when he awakes.

Therefore in the composer, more than in any other artist, the man is entirely separated and distinct from the artist. Even in the explanation of this wonderful art, the concept shows its poverty and limitation. I shall try, however, to complete our analogy.

chords sheet on piano tiles

As a quick transition from the wish to satisfaction and from satisfaction to a new wish is happiness and well-being. So, quick melodies without great deviations are cheerful. Slow melodies, striking painful discords, and only winding back through many bars to the keynote are, as analogous to the delayed and hardly won satisfaction, sad.

The delay of the new excitement of will, languor, could have no other expression than the sustained keynote. The effect of which would soon be unbearable. Very monotonous and unmeaning melodies approach this effect. The short intelligible subjects of quick dance-music seem to speak only of easily attained common pleasure.

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On the other hand, the Allegro maestoso, in elaborate movements, long passages, and wide deviations, signifies a greater, nobler effort toward a more distant end, and its final attainment. The Adagio speaks of the pain of a great and noble effort which despises all trifling happiness.

But how wonderful is the effect of the minor and major! How astounding that the change of half a tone, the entrance of a minor third instead of a major. At once and inevitably forces upon us an anxious painful feeling, from which again we are just as instantaneously delivered by the major.

The Adagio lengthens in the minor the expression of the keenest pain and becomes even a convulsive wail. Dance music in the minor seems to indicate the failure of that trifling happiness which we ought rather despise, seems to speak of the attainment of a lower end with toil and trouble.

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The inexhaustibleness of possible melodies corresponds to the inexhaustibleness of nature indifference of individuals, physiognomies, and courses of life. The transition from one key to an entirely different one, since it altogether breaks the connection with what went before, is like death, for the individual ends in it; but the will which appeared in this individual lives after him as before him, appearing in other individuals, whose consciousness, however, has no connection with his.